Langtang valley. Source: Canon Ixus 850IS, (c) Ari Paulin, licensed under (c) 2008 Ari Paulin. Shot on 2007-10-11 Photo taken in , Rasuwa, Nepal
Langtang valley. Source: Canon Ixus 850IS, (c) Ari Paulin, licensed under (c) 2008 Ari Paulin. Shot on 2007-10-11 Photo taken in , Rasuwa, Nepal (map)


Note: There are alternative ways of spelling many names in Asian ranges.

  • Bonington, Chris & Salkeld, Audrey: World Mountaineering - The World's Greatest Mountains by the Worlds Greatest Mountaineers. Miller's Publications, 2006. Isbn: 1845331427.
  • Maier, Frith: Trekking in Russia and Central Asia - A Traveler's Guide. Mountaineers Books, 1994. Isbn: 0898863554.


Turkey is a mostly mountainous country, with mountains bordering to the Mediterranean in the south, the Black Sea in the north, Aegean Sea in the west and a high, dry plateau in the interior part of the country. There is much variety among the mountains of Turkey, and the same can be said of Turkey's climate, as the damp coastal regions contrast with the dry inland plateau. Generally warm, comfortable temperatures prevail throughout Turkey, making for excellent year round hiking, though early Summer is the best season for the higher summits.

In the southern part of the country on the cost of Mediterranean Sea lie Taurus mountains. They presents a formidable crest-line of steep rocky peaks, dozens of which top 3000 meters.

In northern part of Turkey, close to Caspain Sea rise Pontic Mountains, which is actually a collection of several smaller ranges. Summits in the Pontics average from 3000m to 3600m.

Ida Mountains in northwestern Turkey on the coast of Aegean Sea, are volcanic in origin, and there are many hot springs in the foothills. This mountain area is the site of ancient Troy, and of the legendary events which led to the Trojan War.

The two highest mountains in Turkey, Mount Ararat (5165m) and Suphan Dagi (4434m) are isolated volcanoes in the extreme east of the country. Snow-capped Mount Ararat (5165m) rises in isolation above the surrounding plains and valleys in extreme northeast Turkey, 15km west of Iran, and 35km south of Armenia. Ararat is a holy mountain. Its sacredness comes from the Old Testament legend of Noah, whose ark came to rest on Ararat following the great flood. The second highest mountain Suphan Dagi (4434m) is located just north of Lake Van, Turkey's largest lake.

Mount Ararat39.70188344.2983175165 (map)
Normal route. PD+.


Caucasus range, extending 1200km between Black Sea in the west and Caspian Sea in the east, forms both geographic, ethnic and political barrier between Europe and Asia. North to south the range extends maximally 180km. Although it is the home to the highest mountains of the Europe, the area is relatively little known among western climbers, as the access was formerly difficult. There are seven peaks above 5000m. The Great Caucasus is traditionally divided into three regions - Western, Central and Eastern, with conventional borders coming through two highest peaks: Mt. Elbrus (5642m) to the west and Mt. Kazbek (5033m) to the east. <<more>>.

Tien Shan

Tien Shan mountain range, meaning Heavenly Mountains, is 800 km wide and 2800 km long mountain system located in Central Asia northeast of Pamir and north of Kunlun Shan, extending from Uzbekistan to Mongoliaa. It is extended further north by the Bogda Mountains, and further still by the Altai Mountains along China's northern border. It includes more than thirty peaks close to, or over, 6000 meters above sea level, the predominant height of summits in the Tien Shan is 4000-5000m and passes range between heights of 3500-4500m. All the chains are ridges of the Tien Shan except the meridian one, run west-east and consists of four separated by natural features: the Central Tien Shan, the Northern and the Western and the Inner Tien Shan. <<more>>.


Pamir range, called the roof of the world by Persians, is located in southern Central Asia. It is mainly located mainly in Tajikistan, but the northern slopes stretch to Kyrgyzstan, its western and southern slopes stretch to Afganistan and eastern slopes to China. It is roughly rectangular in shape, they are 280 km long north to south and about 420 km from west to east. The range is naturally bordered by Kyzyl-Su and Surkhob river valleys in the north, Sarykol ridge on the border between China and Tajikistan in the east, Pamir and Pyandzh rivers in the south and Pyandzh river and Western spurs of the Darvaz and Peter the First ridges on the west. The region is sometimes referred to as the Pamir Knot, as it is the central hub of great mountain ranges. On the West Pamir borders on Hindu Kush, on the south on Karakoram and Himalaya and on the east of Pamier lies Kunlun Shan and on the North-East Tien Shan. <<more>>.

Kunlun Shan

Kunlun Shan (or Kunlun/Kun-Lun) is a major mountain system of Asia, located along the north edge of the vast dry Tibetan plains in China about halfway between the Himalayas in the south and Tien Shan in the north. On the west side, it borders on Pamir. The highest mountains of the range are located in the narrow eastern part. There are several high peaks in the range with very difficult Kongur (7719m) being the highest. Technically easy Muztagh Ata (7546m) is by far the most climbed of the high peaks, it probably being the most popular of all 7000m peaks. Apart from Muztagh Ata, many mountains of the range are little known, remote and access is both difficult and takes a great deal of time. There are several unclimbed high peaks. Apart from the above mentioned, Muztag (7282m), Cholpanglik (7102m), Ulugh Muztagh (6987m), Bukadaban Feng (6860m), Chakragil (6727m) and Amne Machin (6282m) are probably the most important peaks. July and August are considered the best months for climbing.

  • (Karakorum Highway Map). Cordee. Isbn: 0952171813.

Kongur Shan Kunlun

Kongur (Kongur Tagh)38.59333375.3133337719 (map)
China (Xinjiang), Kongur Shan Kunlun.

Kongur (7719m) is the main summit of the Kongur-Tagh Massif and Kunlun Shan range. It is located in the western part of the range, not far from the Karakoram Highway and Muztagh Ata.

Approach is reasonable from Karakul lake along Karakoram highway but all routes demand difficult climbing at high altitude.

First ascent by Chris Bonington, Pete Boardman, Alan Rouse & Joe Tasker in 1981 va SW Ridge (Bonington route).

Bonington Chris: Kongur China's Elusive Summit.

South side
SW Ridge (Bonington Route). TD-/TD/Rus 6A; V; 2900m.
Normal route. Base camp is located at 4800m (one days walk from Karakul lake). Route to Advanced base camp at 5400m involves very crevassed glacier (7-9h). From ABC long loop around South face and joins main West Ridge at Kongur col (6750m). From there along the ridge over Karyalak Peak (Junction, 7245) to col at 7220m. From there steep and difficult ridge to the summit.
Outskirts of Infinity (SW Buttress). Rus 6B extra/ED; VI+; 2900m.
North side
Japanese Route (North ridge). Rus 6B; 4100m.
Kongur Tiube38.61583375.1958337530 (map)
China (Xinjiang), Kongur Shan Kunlun.

Muztagata Kunlun

Muztagh Ata38.27583375.1161117546 (map)
China, Muztagata Kunlun, Located in Kun-Lun range in China, above Karakol lake, it stands alone and rises 4 kilometer above the valley, to the south of Kongur..

Normal route is non-technical and Muztagh Ata is nowadays very popular, far more so than Peak Lenin. Access to the base camp on the west side of mountain is 3-4h hike from Karakoram highway.

Steep and remote eastern side was first climbed in 2000 by the party led by Dan Mazur via eastern ridge.

First ascent by Chinese-Soviet expedition in 1956 via Kalaxong ridge.

West Face. Rus 5A; 40-45°; 3100m.
Normal route. Non-technical route on snow and ice, often climbed as a ski mountaineering trip. Normally no more than 30° with short sections of 40-45° possible. Base camp at 4450m and high camps at 5200-5400m, 6200m and 6800m.
Kalaxong Ridge (West Ridge of Muztagh Ata South summit). Rus 5A/AD/D-; III.
Snow and ice climb with crevasses, more difficult than West Ridge. Starting from the base camp of normal route (4450m), usually high camps at 5400m, 6400m and 700m. Although the route does not go via Kalaxang summit (Muztagh Ata South Summit, 7277m), it is possible to include it.

Kunlun Shan

Amne Machin34.79833399.46257160 (map)
China, Kunlun Shan.
Ulugh Muztagh36.412587.3856973 (map)
China (Xinjiang/Tibet), Kunlun, Located in the central Kunlun Shan, near the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, Ulugh Muztagh is a high snow peak..

Old survey of 1890 gave it a height of 7720m, more recent ones 6973m or 6989.

Ulugh Muztagh is very remote and inaccessible, thus there have been very few climbs. Some expeditions have been stopped long before they reached the base of the mountain.

First ascent by Sino-American expedition in 1985 from the east side.

Hindu Raj

Hindu Raj range is located to the west of Hindu Kush, located mainly in Afghanistan. Its highest peak is Koyo Zom (6872m). Other notable peaks include Buni Zom and Ghamubar Zom. The range is much less well-known than its neighbors, partly because of the absence of any really high peaks.

Hindu Kush

Hindu Kush is located southwest of Pamir, more or less on the border of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Hindu Kush is one of the great watersheds of Central Asia, forming part of the vast Alpine zone that stretches across the continent from east to west. In the eastern part of the range, mountains are generally round and wide, and rise to around 5500m, low by central Asian standards. Western part has a cluster of high snowy peaks, twenty of which are 7000 meter summits. The highest mountain of the area is Tirich Mir (7690m). Compared to many other areas with high peaks, the weather is predictable and stable.

Tirich Mir (Terich Mir, Terichmir)36.25527871.8416677690 (map)
Pakistan, Hindu Kush, Located in Hindu Kush, south of the main crest, entirely in Pakistan..
First ascent
Arne Naess, P. Kvernberg, H. Berg & Tony Streather

World Mountaineering pp.212-215

North side
NW Ridge. 2800m. Tirich Mir, NW Ridge, First ascentCzech Team, 1967.
Noshaq36.43222271.8286117492 (map)
Pakistan, Hindu Kush.
Istoro Nal36.37555671.8983337388 (map)
Pakistan, Hindu Kush.
Saraghrar36.547572.1157349 (map)
Hindu Kush.


Karakoram (sometimes spelled Karakorum) lies in northeast Pakistan and Northern India, some 1500km west of Nepalase Himalayas and north of westernmost part of Himalaya, separated from it by the river of Indus. It is often regarded as a part of the Himalayas. The mountains in Karakoram typically have sharp, angular form and many of icy peaks are surrounded by wild towers and spires. Many mountains in Karakoram are very difficult to climb. The range has severe storms, especially K2 is known for harsh weather. On high mountains, June - August are usually most suitable months for climbing. <<more>>.


Most of the worlds highest mountains are located in the vast and complex Himalayan range (that means The Land of Snow). It forms over 2000km broad crescent through Northeastern Pakistan (Punjab), Northwestern India, Southern Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim Bhutan and Assam area of India. It is bordered on the north by the plateau of Central Asia and on the south by the fertile plains of the India. Ten of the world's fourteen 8000-meter peaks are located in Himalaya (the remaining are located in Karakoram). <<more>>.

Chinese ranges

Besides the aforementioned ranges, there are several other ranges, especially in China. Mostly not much information is readily available and there is huge number of unclimbed high peaks.

  • Maier, Frith: Trekking in Russia and Central Asia - A Traveler's Guide. Mountaineers Books, 1994. Isbn: 0898863554.

Xuelian Group

Xuelian Group is covered in Tien Shan section.

Tibetan Plateau

  • Nakamura, Tamotsu: Die Alpen Tibets - Östlich Des Himalaya, 1 edition. Detjen Verlag, 2008. Isbn: 9783937597256.

Central Tibetan Plateau

Vast range in Tibet located to the east of Karakoram, to the south of Kunlun, to the north of Gangdise and Nyangchen Tanglha and to the west of Tanggula. These ranges are not part of Himalayas.

Shahi Kangri6934
Kataklik Kangri6897
Nganglong Kangri (Align Kangri)32.80833381.0008336720 (map)
Gyoinmaixoi'og Kangri6223


Tanggula lies further north of Tibetan plateau, to the north of Nyengchen Tanglha.

Purog Kangri6929
Bu'gyai Kangri6328
Peak 54755475
Yagradaze Shan5215

Hengduan Mountains

The Hengduan Mountains is a large mountainous region in southwestern China. It occupies most of the western part of the present-day Sichuan province, as well as the northwestern corner of Yunnan province and the easternmost section of Tibet Autonomous Region. This approximates the historical region known as Kham. It forms the south-eastern border of the Tibet Plateau. Mountain ranges in the southern end of the Hengduan system form the border between Burma and China.

It is a complicated system of mountain ranges, most of which run roughly north to south. The best known of these areas are Daxue Shan and Qionglai ranges in Sichuan. The former is where Minya Konka (7556m), the highest peak of the range, is located. Smaller ranges forming the eastern edge of the Hengduan system include the Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling ranges.

  • Brandtner, Michael: Minya Konka Schneeberge Im Osten Tibets. Die Entdeckung Eines Alpin-Paradieses, 1 edition. Detjen, Pedro, 2006. Isbn: 9783937597201.

SE Tibet Yunnan)

  • Hkakabo Razi
  • Baxoila-Gaoligong Ranges
  • Damyon and Meili Xueshan
  • Baimang Shan
  • Yulong Xueshan and Haba Xueshan

Daxue Shan

The Daxue Mountains are a great mountain range in the western part of Sichuan province in Southwest China, to the east of Assam Himalaya and Nyengchen Tanglha. The Daxue Mountain Range runs for several hundred kilometers in the general north-south direction, mostly within Sichuan's Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. It separates the basins of the Yalong River (to the west) and the Dadu River (to the east). Both rivers flow in the general southern direction, and are tributaries of the Yangtze. The tallest peak of the range is Gongga Shan (Minya Konka, 7556m), the easternmost 7000m peak in Asia, located in the southern part of the range. To the east and south of the Gongga Shan, the Daxue Mountains are adjacent to the smaller Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling ranges, which are usually considered by cartographers as separate ranges.

Minya Konka (Gongga Shan)29.595278101.8797227556 (map)
China, Daxue Shan, Located in Sichuan province of Central China, Minya Konka is the easternmost 7000m peak..

First ascent by American expedition in 1932. ("Men against Clouds")

Left Pillar (NW ridge). 45-50°, II.
Normal route. Base camp around 4380m. From there to NW ridge via steep glacier (45-50°) and left pillar. Then along ridge until the "Hump", vertical ice block at 6300m, that is turned, then along the the ridge on ice and rock (UIAA II) to the summit. Camps at 5310m, 5900m and 6600-6800m.
Mount Grosvenor (Ri Wu Qie Feng)6376
Mount Grosvenor, SW ridge,
First ascent
SW ridge: Roger Payne & Julie-Ann Clyma
Mount Grosvenor, Central couloir,
First ascent
Central couloir: Kyle Dempster & Bruce Normand
Mount Grosvenor, Black Wolves and Blue Poppies,
First ascent
Black Wolves and Blue Poppies: Jeff Shapiro & Chris Gibisch
West side
Central couloir. WI4+; 2050m, 15h. Mount Grosvenor, Central couloir, First ascentKyle Dempster & Bruce Normand, 2010-11.
Black Wolves and Blue Poppies. M5+ WI4+ AI6; 1300m. Mount Grosvenor, Black Wolves and Blue Poppies, First ascentJeff Shapiro & Chris Gibisch, 2011.
SW ridge. Mount Grosvenor, SW ridge, First ascentRoger Payne & Julie-Ann Clyma, 2003-11.
Mount Edgar (E-Gongga)6618
Mount Edgar, South side,
First ascent
South side: Korean party
Mount Edgar, The Rose of No-Man's Land,
First ascent
The Rose of No-Man's Land: Kyle Dempster & Bruce Normand
North face
East face
The Rose of No-Man's Land. nccs VI M6 WI5; 2400m. Mount Edgar, The Rose of No-Man's Land, First ascentKyle Dempster & Bruce Normand, 2010-11.

Alpinist #35; AAJ 2011

South side
South side. Mount Edgar, South side, First ascentKorean party, 2002.
East face

Qionglai Mountains

The highest point of the Qionglai Mountains is Siguniang Shan (6250m) located in the southern part of the range.

Siguniang Shan6250
Siguniang Shan, Liberation,
First ascent
Liberation: Sun Bin & Li Zhongli
Siguniang Shan, ,
First ascent
Japanese party
Siguniang Shan, South Buttress,
First ascent
South Buttress: Japanese party
Siguniang Shan, Inside Line,
First ascent
Inside Line: Mick Fowler & Paul Ramsden
Siguniang Shan, Free Spirits,
First ascent
Free Spirits: Yan Dongdong & Zhou Peng
North face
Inside Line. ED+; VII/AI6/M6; 1500m. Siguniang Shan, Inside Line, First ascentMick Fowler & Paul Ramsden, 2002-04-21.
Winner of Piolet d'Or 2002.

AAJ 2003

South face
Free Spirits. 1120m. Siguniang Shan, Free Spirits, First ascentYan Dongdong & Zhou Peng, 2009-11-27.
Logical line through central couloir.
Liberation. AI3+,M4. Siguniang Shan, Liberation, First ascentSun Bin & Li Zhongli.
South Buttress. Siguniang Shan, South Buttress, First ascentJapanese party, 1992.


Altai mountains are located in the region where Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia meet, north of Bogda range. Though Altai range is lower in altitude than many other ranges in Asia, it is very remote, and much time and planning are required for its approach. The highest mountain is Gora Belukha (or Belukla, 4506m).

Altai mountains can be divided into three sections:

  • Russian Altai (aka Great Altai).
  • Mongolian Altai (aka Ektag Altai). Located on the border between China and Mongolia.
  • Gobi-Altai. Located entirely in Mongolia, north of Gobi desert. The highest peak of the range is Ich Bogd Uul (3957m).

Forbidden Mountains pp.99-101

Russian Altai

Gora Belukha (Gora Belukla, Belukha)49.807586.594506 (map)

Gora Belukla is the highest mountain of Altai range. It is located along the border of Russia and Kazakhstan, just north of the point where these two borders meet those of China and Mongolia.

Eastern summit (4506m) is slightly higher than western summit (4460m).

Maier pp.249-250

Delone Pass. Rus 2B-3A; 1300m.
Normal route. From Tomsky bivouac hut (Tomskie Nochevki, 3200m) on Akkem glacier. Via Delone Pass (3400m, 300m of steep snow, 45°) to Mensu glacier and Berelsky saddle (3520m) and further to TKT Pass (4115m, camp). From there via Belukhinski pass to summit.
Belukha (Bottle's Throat, Butylka). Rus 5A; 65°; 1000m.
Central snow/ice couloir in the middle of Belukha East's North Face.
Belukha, Akkem Wall. Rus 5A-5B.
Altai Crown4167

Mongolian Altai

Chüiten49.14583387.8188894374 (map)
Mönkh Khairkhan Uul4204
Tsast Uul4193
Tsambagaraw Uul4165
Sutai Uul4090
Tawan-Bogd Uul4082


Ich Bogd Uul3957


Kliuchevskaya (Klyuchevskaya Sopka)4750
The highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia. Its steep, symmetrical cone.
Kliuchevskaya, ,
First ascent
Daniel Gauss & companions
via ice plateau and Kamen-Kliuchevskaya col. Rus 2A/PD; I/II; 3800m, 8-9h.


Mount Fuji35.358138.7313776 (map)
Japan. The highest and most famous mountain in Japan. Several hiking routes with little technical difficulty.
North side
Kawaguchiko. Rus 1B; 2nd class; 1500m.
Mount Hotaka3190